19th Century

UNDRESSED EXHIBITION: A BRIEF HISTORY OF UNDERWEAR: V&A MUSEUM: LONDON, UK 

COTTON COUTIL CORSET 

Record Number: V&A: T.90δA- 1984 – Given by the family of Mayer Yanovsky

Summary: 

Dated: C.1890

The corset is made of two parts from a single layer of light brown cotton coutil with single external bone casings in contrasting dark brown coutil. The corset is reinforced by an extra panel of the dark brown coutil that wraps around the waist designed to reduce the risk of the whalebone breaking.

The front panels feature sections of horizontal cording around the bust providing support and strength to the corset. The corset is finished with flossing- a decorative embroidery technique used to hold the bones preventing them from working their way out of  the casings.

The corset is bound by a twill weave tape at decorated around the upper edge with machine made cotton lace.

S-Bend corset (From the Hopkins Collection)

Summary: 

Dated: C.1902-1909 (probably British)

Corset made from cotton, silk, whalebone (baleen), metal busk  and machine made lace trimmed with replacement ribbon

The S bend corset was cut low freeing the breasts but pushed the stomach and pelvis in, hips and buttocks back and shoulders and bossom forward.

WHITE COTTON CORSET WITH TRAPUNTO WORK

Record Number: V&A: T.57-1945

Summary: 

Dated: C.1825-35 (Britain)

Constructed from corded and quilted  cotton, silk thread and whalebone. The corset features both bust and hip gussets. 

Trapunto derived from the Italian “to quilt” is a method of quilting that utilises two layers of fabric, the underside of which is slit and padded to produce a raised surface.

The corset features a wide concealed busk to the centre front which seperates the breasts and helps flatten the stomach.

WHITE RIBBON CORSET

Record Number: V&A: T.18-1958

Summary: 

Dated: C.1900 (possibly British)

With the reinvention of the ancient Olympic games in 1896, women began taking part in various physical activities and games including tennis, cycling, skiing and skating. Although corsets were still an integral part of women’s clothing, styles were being manufactured lighter and less structured.

The upper edge of this corset finishes under the breast. The ventilated style corsets were becoming more popular for the sporting woman allowing freedom of movement and healthy respiration for the wearer.

The sides are boned providing support and allowing for some waist constriction.

COTTON NET CORSET

Record Number: V&A: T.92&A-1984

Summary: 

Dated: C.1900 (BRITAIN /GERMANY)

Made in two parts which which fasten together at the front with a straight metal busk, This corset is made of cotton net allowing air to pass through the garment which helped keep the skin cool during summertime. The corset is reinforced with a white cotton diamond shaped waist band and single external bone casings that sit over the top.

The corset reaches from just over the bust to the curve of the hips slanting down to a point at the front.

GERMAN ERSATZ (AUSTERITY) CORSET

Record Number: V&A: T.44-2015

Summary: 

Dated: C.1917-1918 (GERMANY OR AUSTRIA)

Made from canvas weave paper twine, this corset is an example of the ersatz (substitute) clothing produced in Germany or Austria in response to the severe textile shortages during the First World War.  ‘Maintaining a supply of underwear was important to civilian moral. corsets were particularly important. without them most women felt undressed’

The corset features metal boning finishing part way down within the channels to allow for freedom of movement around the hip. The corset is trimmed with woven silk and linen ribbon.

GIRDLE LITTLE X: SILHOUETTE [SALOP] LTD

Record Number: V&A: T.291-1993

Summary: 

Dated: Early 1960’s (BRITAIN)

LYCRA, Nylon, lurex trim with metal suspender clips

Designed by Anne- Marie Lobbenberg for Silhouette in 1958 proved very popular with young women. The all elastic girdle provided light control and two way stretch

Advertisements focused on its functionality and the freedom of movement it allowed, promising that it ‘wont wrinkle, roll over or ride up’

The corset incorporates Lycra the brand name for elastane [spandex] a synthetic stretch fibre produced from polyurethane in 1959.

BUST EXTENDER: SPIRELLA CORSET COMPANY

Record Number: V&A T.348-1996

Summary:

Dated: 1910-1914

“The Spirella corset company marketed this style in its 1913 mail-order catalogue as a ‘bust extender… for the person who is too thin or scant in chest development”

The bust extender is constructed from a cotton covered frame of spiral steel boning designed to emphasise the ‘monobosom’ that was fashionable at the time. ‘The monobosom was the result of the S-bend corset that left breasts unsupported, and was exaggerated to create an unnatural ‘pouter pigeon’ chest that puffed out over the comparatively tiny waistline’.

The bust extender would have been worn over the top of the corset and inside the bodice of the dress

Trimmed around the neckline and arm holes with a cotton lace trim.

CORSET WITH SHOULDER STRAPS (UNKNOWN)

References
Ehrman, E (2015) Undressed. V&A Publishing. London

(1895- 1910) CORSET ADVERTISEMENT: FERRIS BROS. ATHLETIC WAIST & BICYCLE CORSET WAIST

I often refer to old corset advertisements for information on shape or fit of a corset. I am currently writing an article on the ‘Athletic Corset’ so thought I would share some designed by The Ferris Bros Company (established in 1878) for their Athletic and Bicycle corset waist styles.

As physical exercise became more popular amongst woman in the 1890’s, corsets were adapted to allow the wearer freedom of movement and ‘promote healthy respiration’.

bicyle-corset-waist

“THE PERFECT POISE of the woman who wears a Ferris waist is easily distinguishable. She rides with easy grace because every motion, every muscle is absolutely free. She rides without Fatigue because she enjoys perfect respiration. 

FERRIS BICYCLE CORSET WAIST is constructed with elastic sides which yield to every motion of the wearer. The hips are short and pliable, the bust is made to give support without restriction. Every woman who rides a wheel or a horse, who plays tennis or golf should wear a Ferris Waist. They are shown in all their beauty in the Ferris Living Models. Sent Free.”

 

1897-ferris-good-sense-bicycle-waist

1897- FERRIS GOOD SENSE CORSET WAIST FOR BICYCLE WEAR

“FOR BICYCLE WEAR- For the tennis court of gymnasium, every woman should wear a Ferris Waist. Formed on hygienic principles yielding to every motion of the body, permitting full expansion of the lungs, at the same time giving the body healthful and graceful support. Style No. 296 is made with stiff bust, elastic sides and hose support attachment, expressly for bicycle wear and athletic exercise.

FERRIS GOOD SENSE CORSET WAIST is made high and low bust, long and short waist to suit all figures. always superior in quality and workmanship. Children’s 25 cents to 50 cents. Misses’ 50 cents to $1.00. Ladies $1.00 to $2.00. For Sale by all retailers.”

 

ferris-athletic-corset-waist

1902- FERRIS ATHLETIC  CORSET WAIST

“FERRIS ATHLETIC CORSET WAIST is especially designed for women who enjoy outdoor sports. Faultless in outline, it meets every requirement of fashionable dress and yet there is neither restraint nor pressure. Elastic bands at the sides yield to every breath and movement: Comfortable shoulder straps support the bust in any position and keep the shoulders from drooping.

FERRIS ATHLETIC WAIST is the most healthful, restful, graceful, garment a woman ever wore.”

 

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1908- FERRIS ATHLETIC WAIST- ADVERT PUBLISHED IN GOOD HOUSEKEEPING

STYLE 262

“ACTIVE WOMEN- Body-activity requires limb-freedom, breathing room and growing room. Hence the FERRIS ATHLETIC WAIST is a perfect garment for active women. Without binding or constricting it gently yet firmly supports and molds the body, permitting exercise and unusual freedom of movement”

 

1903-good-sense-athletic-waist-ferris

1903- FERRIS GOOD SENSE ATHLETIC WAIST

STYLE 261

“THE OUTLINE OF HEALTH- There is an old fashioned notion that an athletic waist is ugly. this perhaps is the reason so many woman still embrace the torture of health destroying corsets. they do not know the principles  of the FERRIS GOOD SENSE ATHLETIC WAIST

The above illustration is a photographic reproduction. note the lines of beauty. see the elastic expansion on the side that allows the waist to breathe when you do, that permits you to turn and bend and swing with perfect ease an grace”

 

ferris-corset-good-sense-athletic-waist-1901

1901- FERRIS CORSET GOOD SENSE  ATHLETIC WAIST 

EXERCISE FOR WOMEN often does more harm than good because of a rigid corset. Ferris good sense athletic waist is especially designed for women who enjoy healthful excercise. Faultless in outline it meets every demand of health and comfort, every demand of fashionable dress.

is joined at the waist with elastic bands which yield to every breathe and movement. shoulder straps keep the figure erect and promote healthful respiration.
An indispensable garment for the woman who rides a wheel, plays golf or tennis, rows a boat or climbs a mountain

http://www.ebay.com/itm/AKH-410-Antique-Print-1901-Ferris-Good-Sense-Athletic-Waist-Advertisement-/351898323221?hash=item51eec64915:g:1UwAAOSwMVdYHp9m

 

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1887 B BALDWIN PATENT 358249: PART 1

NOTE  *This article was orginally published January 2015 for Foundations Revealed. The link can be found here*

1887 B Baldwin Patent: Corset and method of making the same

This is the first part of a two-part series discussing B Baldwin’s 1887 patent 358249. This article will discuss the patent, it’s pattern and how it was created whereas the second will focus on recreating the corset and my methods used in its construction.

When I first saw this patent I was immediately attracted to the unusual paneling and the wonderful shapes the lines created. Personally I love corsets which have a focus on the waist section, such as some of the ventilated styles as opposed to your typical Victorian style with their up and down straight panels. I thought I could have some fun playing with color when recreating the pattern for the final corset.

As I’ve not before incorporated gores/gussets within a corset pattern before I knew this would also be a personal challenge. As someone with a petite frame and from a pattern cutters point of view I’ve associated gores and gussets with adding capacity and support for the more curvier figure. From a construction angle I must admit so far I’ve always avoided them as I knew it would be challenging to insert, particularly sewing round the corner at the apex of the gore. This patent would definitely be a learning curve both pattern wise and testing my sewing ability.

The Patent

The patent is comprised of two main parts, the first illustrates the corset and it’s parts- drawings of the pieces and the second is the specification that forms the letters of the patent declaring the description of the invention. The patent can be found here.

Baldwin’ patent relates invention of new improvements in corsets. As stated in the letters, Baldwin’s patent relates to the manufacture of corsets and its general object to Simplify and improve their construction. This could be accomplished by ‘so shaping the pieces of which each half of the corset is composed’

Part A shows two figures as seen below:

1

FIGURE 1 shows a completed half corset with all the stitching detail demonstrating the contruction in line with the written description

2FIGURE 2 is a general view showing an outline of the pieces of which the half corset is composed.

Patent Observations

  • The pattern was made up of 16 pieces (8 per half) it featured both hip and bust gores.
  • Straight front busk used. No indication of depth of centre front given so length would be determined later on.
  • The main body of the corset was made up of 4 pieces. I’ll rename the pieces as follows for the remainder of the article which will make it easier to distinguish than the numbers of the pieces in the patent (which in my opinion) were oddly marked Centre front (1), – – Front (3), Back (7), Centre back (2).
  • The gores would also be referred to as Front bust gore (5) back bust gore (6) front hip gore (10) back hip gore (9).

Centre Front- The centre front was a straight strip piece to which the front was joined. The front seam of the FRONT Panel was curved which would give some curve to the corset over the abdomen region.

Front- As indicated on the drawing Point 4 denotes a slit cut into the pattern which would be opened out to insert the FRONT BUST GORE. The BACK BUST gore would also be partially joined.

Back- Would feature a cut away section which would be opened out slightly when inserting the BACK HIP GORE. This piece would also join to the FRONT HIP GORE creating that S bend curve.

Centre Back The centre back was a curved piece which would help curve the corset inward following the curvature of the spine. I did initially wonder at this point how the seam would be boned.

Object of the Patent

Relates to the manufacture of corsets, and has for its general object to simplify and improve their construction’ this would be achieved by the patent pattern lessening the number of seams in the garment.The essential principle being that the front and back body-sections are joined by a single curved and recurved seam, which follows naturally the curves of the body from between the shoulder blades at the back of the corset down across the waist and around the front of the hip to the bottom of the corset at the front. In doing so the corset will closely naturally to the figureThe corset will conform to the curves of the figure without the necessity of pressing or forming it into shape.There being no special pressure or tightness at any of the seams or at any portion of the corset.Baldwin also states in his letters that completed corset when drawn tightly around the figure ‘bring an embodiment both of Hogarth’s ‘Line of Beauty’ and the Grecian line of Grace. This would be achieved via the corsets construction and Baldwin’s principle of the front and back sections being joined by a single curve. I decided to do a little bit of research.

Hogarth’s Line of Beauty

3

The line of Beauty is a theory in art or aesthetics used to describe an S-shaped curved line (a serpentine line) within an object.

The theory originates with William Hogarth and is an essential part of his theory of aesthetics as described in his Analysis of Beauty from 1753. According to his theory it is to be observed that straight lines vary only in length and therefore are left ornamental. Curved shaped curved lines signify liveliness and can vary in their degree of curvature as well as length.

This theory can be seen with the curved and recurved seam taken from Baldwin’s notes commencing from the bottom the seam first joins the back edge of the front body section and the front edge of the front hip gore. This seam passes along the rearwardly extending tongue of the front body section and joins that to the front of the back body section. It then passes of from the tongue and joins the back of the underarm section to the front of the back body section.

Initial Thoughts

When I first looked at the drawing of the corset I found it a little intimidating to envisage how the pieces would come together for the finished garments especially with the external bone casings providing the structure. I wanted to be clear on its construction and how it was intended to fit the body before I adapted the pattern to my own measurements

I therefore decided to do some further research into some of the history of the time. Moreover look at some of the corsets from this time and the assignor to Thomson, Langdon & CO.

History

The patent was assigned by Thomson – presumably Thomson, Langdon & Co. (American, founded 1865) was probably most known for his glove fitting style corsets. The illustrations below are actually of a later date so maybe this corset patent of 1887 as a fore runner to the later styles. The Foundations Revealed article by Marion McNealy provided a lovely timeline of the styles.

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5

Corsets of 1887

I also used The Metropolitan Museum in New York online site for some visual sources of actual corsets from this period for inspiration on fit, colour and fabric. For anyone that is not familiar it’s well worth a look. Admittedly I did spend quite a while looking up corsets from this period but will just include a couple for the sake of the article.

CI46.27.6_F

Ivory Silk Corset dated 1887 – Made of ivory silk the corset featured a front bust gusset. (Laura Loft has a useful article discussing gores and gussets). The article describes as a piece inserted between 2 panels and a gore being a panel inserted into a slit which was opened out during manufacture. The corset has a straight upper edge with a deep lace trim. The external bone casing were positioned close together at the centre front providing lots of support to the abdomen.

50.105.41_front_CP4

American corset dated between 1885-1887. Another corset featuring a gusset instead of a gore. I wondered whether this technique was used often. Gores would certainly be harder to insert pivoting the apex around the slit. The corsets of this time seemed to be cut quite low and straight over the bust perhaps keeping level with the overbust line. I also noticed that the corset lower edge sits high up on hip and featured a smooth dipping curve to the CF.

Planning Stages

My body frame is quite small so I was interested in whether the hip and bust gores would really work for me. Typically they provide capacity in these areas but being quite petite I wondered whether they would be too much and I would have to reduce them right down. Was there any point in making this corset for me? Or should I find someone of a more curvier figure. While I’m probably not the right figure for this style, never the less it would be interesting to see how this style of pattern would fit a small frame.

Things to consider – The sketches of the patents pieces would not be accurate scaled versions of the final corset. I would work with them loosely but would provide a good starting point for piecing together and seeing how the corset fitted together.

Observation – I would probably add some height into the bust gores as they came under the over bust line to make it more wearable for the modern day wearer me who wouldn’t be wearing it as an outer corset as opposed to undergarment

Measurements

Usually I work to a 2 inch reduction throughout my corset patterns for bust, waist and hips. However as the patent stated ‘The corset will conform to the curves of the figure without the necessity  of pressing or forming it into shape’. I Decided on a 5cm/ 2″ reduction of the waist with less on the upper body and none on the lower body. I would still have some defintition of the waist without the corset being too constrictive.

Measurements

  • Overbust: 76.5cm
  • Underbust: 69cm
  • Waist: 64cm
  • Top hip: 79.5cm
  • Full hip: 86 cm
  • Over bust to underbust: 6.5cm
  • Underbust to waist: 12cm
  • Point of bust (POB to POB) 18cm
  • Waist to top hip: 10cm
  • Waist to full hip: 20cm

I then made a table to work out my corseted measurements:

Screenshot_2016-02-21-19-07-49-1

Approach to the pattern

Baring in mind the patent was only an indication of the pattern pieces and not actually a pattern itself to adapt, I decided before working to any measurements to piece together the patent to get a 3rd visual idea of the pattern. This would help determine grain lines of the pieces as well.

As a commercial pattern cutter (my day job) I was fortunate enough for the purpose of this challenge to have access to a large scale plotter. Yay- this would save the time of lots of cutting and sticking.

I enlarged the patent to 600% a rough guess of the scale as a starting point. (on a side note the diagram was also printed out and proved most useful as a visual aid for how the panels were joined shown later on and for the bone placement.

I cut out and carefully pinned together the pieces of the patent in order to get a 3D impression of how the corset would shape to the body. The hip and bust gores gave a lot of shape and curve emphasis as noted by Baldwin in his patent. I found that the centre front and front panels gave the corset quite a curve over the abdomen demonstrate which could be seen on some of the images previously mentioned above. The curve was quite flattering and worn would smooth over the stomach area.

NOTE: I compared the 600% scaled version to my measurements and found they were way out. I repeated the exercise printing out the pieces to 500%. I intended on working with something slightly closer to my corseted measurements as a starting point.

Drafting the pattern

First, I used spot and cross paper (on the reverse), a method I use at work. I’m able to still see the faint markings from the reverse as a guide but don’t find it so distracting when working with small increments in the adjustment stage.

14

My first aim was to ensure the lines representing the overbust, underbust, waist, top hip and full hip were spaced according to my measurements. I lined up the waist on the scaled up patent pieces which I had gauged when it was placed on the mannequin on the main pieces now renamed CF, FRONT, BACK and CB and drew around.

15

I realised straight away that the position for the bust gore was in totally the wrong place in comparison to what my measurements said. This could be due to a couple of reasons. The main and probably most likely was the scale at which the pieces were enlarged by. Realistically to get a truer size the patent probably should have been enlarged somewhere between the 500 and 600 %. Also quickly comparing my measurement to that of my mannequin I realised that the length of my body between the underbust line and waist was greater. I decided that the next step would be extending the pattern at the waist so all the pieces lined up with the critical horizontal measurements axis.

1617

At this point I realised I most likely would make a couple of toiles. Working from a patent I wanted to get a feel for the corsets construction and it’s intended look. It was crucial that the pattern maintained the S bend curve through from the front and back. As I would be cutting right through the waist to extend the upper section of the pattern I would have to reshape the curved line.

At this point I decided I would ignore all the other measurements around the body and work first on the depth adding a total of 6.5 throughout the garment. I determined from piecing together the patent that the seam allowance included was roughly around 10mm. This was marked in to to avoid confusion. I carefully traced around the pattern ensuring that I marked in all the horizontal lines which would help repository the pieces. After some consideration I decided that I would add 5cm depth between the underbust and waist. Looking at where the hip gore started I decided also to drop from the waist to the top hip by 1.5cm

On the CF, FRONT, BACK, CB pieces I cut along the waist line

1819-1

On a fresh sheet I marked in the waist position, I faintly marked lines 5cm above and 1.5cm below which would be my guide for repositioning the flat pieces. I drew around the pieces aligning them vertically. The centre front and centre back I simply filled in the gaps.

20-121-1

The front and back sections were more difficult and it took a couple of attempts to get the right shape curves. At this point I had to use the front hip gore to check my seam measurements were correct for the main curve that joined the front and back. This was probably the hardest part as the seam ran through so many pieces.

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At this stage I also ensured that all the other seams aligned correctly before making my first toile.

Toile 1

Observations

  • Hip gores start too low
  • Too much bulge over abdomen
  • Excess fabric over hip
  • Excess fabric over bust

Toile amendments (work on the half)

  1. Raise waist line up by 1cm on all pieces ( which would lift up the hip gussets)
  2. Bust gore: pinch out 1cm24
  3. Side bust gusset: panel pinch out 3 cm. Reshape upper edge. Reshape curve toward back to flatten it. Initially I was going to take the 3 cm from the centre of the piece but realised I would have too much of an angle at the centre point. Instead I took out 3 x 1cm equally spaced throughout the piece.25
  4. Front hip gusset:. pinch out 1cm from centre lower edge to 0 at upper edge . Then reduce lower edge by 1cm reshaping main S bend curve.26-127-1
  5. Front: Pivot pattern piece from waist down to move the seam over by 1cm this will eliminate some of the bulging over the abdomen. Pinch out 0.5m from main A bend curve at waist.28-1
  6. Back: Pinch out 1.5cm from lower edge over hip.29-1
  7.  Back hip gore: Pinch out 2.5cm from lower edge

Toile 2

For the second toile I considered construction methods and tested out how the final corset would be pieced together, this time also including the double stitching line and bone pockets.

For the boning I used a combination of spiral and flat steel bones. The flat steels were only used in the centre back panels to provide support either side of the eyelets. The Flexible steel was inserted into external Bone casings. This adds support but also allows for flexibility

Observation: This toile also allowed me to determine their placement. As I had taken out a fair amount of room over the hips I may not be able to use as many channels as were illustrated in the patent sketch.

Busk: I had determined that I would use a 14″ busk for the final corset. However for the sake of this toile I used something slightly shorter as my supplies were yet to arrive.

 

C1870-1879: MAROON AND MUSHROOM CORSET: CARROW HOUSE: COSTUME AND TEXTILE ARCHIVE (NORWICH, UK)

Record Number
NWHCM: 1967.567.37

Summary
Dated 1870-1879

This spoon busked corset is constructed using alternative panels of maroon and mushroom cotton twill. The corset is stiffened with corded panels used vertically in the front sections over the bust and horizontally over the hips. Cording was a popular method often used in addition and as an alternative to whalebone. Cording was the application of sandwiching twisted cord (usually hemp, cotton or paper) between two layers of fabric. As the cords were inserted they were stitched in place on either side. Once the cloth was constructed the shaped panels could be cut. Depending on how the panels were cut the direction of the cording could be controlled. As in the case of this example cording was also viewed as a design detail. The corded panels provided suppleness to the gament whilst still controlling the wearer’s figure.

16. Laced Unlaced - 0100

The corset is boned in chanels of 3. The front section of boning finishes at the corded panel whereas the side of the corset features an external chanel running from top to bottom which breaks up the corded sections. The corset is trimmed with lace at the upper edge and also heavily decorated with contrast thread flossing over the bone casings at both top and bottom. It can also be seen over the corded bust panel. The bottom edge is machine bound. The centre back of the corset features 12 pairs of brass eyelets evenly spaced for the lacing.16. Laced Unlaced - 010216. Laced Unlaced - 0105

The spoon busk used at the centre front comprises of two parts and features 4 hook and eye closures. The design was distinctively wider at the lower edge and dished inward, going over the abdomen. The theory was the cupped metal shape would offer firm support md protection for the wearer’s lower organs.
The spoon busk was patented by Joseph Bekel in 1879 although there are plenty of early examples from the 1870’s featuring this innovation. With the combination of the cording and boning with the spoon busk made the corset heavier and a more restrictive garment. The spoon busk was a popular feature in corsets until the late 1890’s.

 

Spoon busk patent

Corset-Steel. No. 214,352. Patented April I5, 1879.

US214352-0

Description

WITNESSES: INVENTOR: WMWQKM ZQ 0/7 B x uAA/vw A’TTSENEYS.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

JOSEPH BEOKEL, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.

IMPROVEMENT IN CORSET-STEELS.

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 214,352, dated April 15, 1879 application filed March 14, 1879.

To all whom it may concern:

“Be it known thar I, JOSEPH BECKEL, of the city, county, and State of New York, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Corset-Steels, of which the following is a specification.

Figure 1 represents the outer side of a set of corset-steels to which my improvement has been applied. Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the inner side of the same. Fig. 3 is a detail section of the same, taken through the line as m, Fig. l.

The object of this invention is to furnish steels for long corsets which shall be so constructed as to prevent their lower ends from hurting their wearers when the said wearers are sitting down.

The invention consists in steels for long corsets, having their lower ends bent inward, and provided upon their inner sides with pads, as hereinafter fully described.

Similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts.

A B represent a set of corsetsteels, which are secured to each other by loops 0 and pins or knobs D, in the usual way. The lower ends of the steels A B are bent inward slightly, and have pads E attached to their inner sides, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.

By this construction the pads E will prevent the lower ends of the steels A B from hurting the wearer when she sits down. With this construction long corsets can be worn with ease and com fort, so that the advantages from their use can be had without the annoyance hitherto experienced by their wearers when sitting down.

Having thus described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent- Steels A B for long corsets, having their lower ends bent inward, and provided upon their inner sides with pads E, substantially as herein shown and described.”

JOSEPH BECKEL

References

Doyle, R (1997) Waisted efforts- An illustrated guide to corsetry. Sartorial Press Publications. Ontario, Canada

Corset-Steel. No. 214,352.  Patented April I5, 1879.  http://www.google.com/patents/US214352

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